• Type: Scientific Term

    pH is a scale used to specify the acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of an aqueous solution. It is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14, with a value of 7 being neutral. Values below 7 indicate an acidic solution, while values above 7 indicate a basic (alkaline) solution.


    • Scale Range: 0 to 14
    • Neutral Point: 7
    • Acidic Range: 0 to 6.9
    • Basic (Alkaline) Range: 7.1 to 14
    • Measurement Method: pH meter, pH indicator paper, or universal indicator
    • Unit: pH units (dimensionless)


    • Related Concepts: Acidity, Alkalinity, Hydrogen Ion Concentration, pH Meter, pH Indicator
    • Applications: Water quality testing, soil analysis, chemical manufacturing, food and beverage industry, pharmaceuticals, environmental science
    • Influence on: Chemical reactions, biological processes, enzyme activity, microbial growth
    • Affected by: Temperature, concentration of dissolved ions, presence of buffering agents


    1. Acidic Solution Example: Lemon juice, with a pH of approximately 2.
    2. Neutral Solution Example: Pure water, with a pH of 7.
    3. Basic Solution Example: Baking soda solution, with a pH of around 9.


    • The pH value is logarithmic, meaning each whole pH value below 7 is ten times more acidic than the next higher value.
    • pH can be influenced by various factors, including temperature and the presence of certain chemicals or substances.


    • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): "What is pH and how is it measured?"
    • American Chemical Society (ACS): "The pH Scale"

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